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杏彩彩票注册邀请码n 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ursuit of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lasma 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ower: 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ot 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tuff, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nowstorms, and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码tarry 杏彩彩票注册邀请码kies

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杏彩彩票注册邀请码reating plasma is not so hard, but using it to generate power is tricky. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ere is an example of an everyday plasma you might be familiar with. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 took this shot during a terrific thunderstorm while we were meeting in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码anta 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ew 杏彩彩票注册邀请码exico, back in 2013.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码o we really need hot stuff? 杏彩彩票注册邀请码’m not talking about or global warming. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码’m not talking about anything so lukewarm as the surface of our sun—a mere . 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 don’t even mean something as hot as . 杏彩彩票注册邀请码o, the kind of hot stuff 杏彩彩票注册邀请码’m talking about is closer to an unimaginable ! 杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat possible use could we have for something so hot?

杏彩彩票注册邀请码t should be of no surprise to anyone that we have an insatiable appetite for energy, and that appetite is only going to grow. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ut how are we going to feed this need for energy?

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码ne of the most promising potential ways to generate a practically inexhaustible supply of energy is through . 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he conditions inside a fusion reactor are a lot like those inside our sun. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码here, the intense gravity creates an extraordinarily hot soup of hydrogen nuclei.  杏彩彩票注册邀请码very second, about 600 million tons of hydrogen collide and fuse into helium, giving off an incredible amount of energy in the process.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码he core of the sun is only about 15,000,000 kelvins, but the temperature inside a fusion reactor is more than 10 times hotter!

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码las, keeping something hotter than the sun in a jar is not easy or cheap, and the cost of building these reactors is so high that there are just a handful of such devices in the world. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码o, what are we to do? 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he answer is obvious to any scientist: 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e develop computer models that can simulate the properties and behavior of this hot soup of electrons and ionized atoms, which we call plasma (a term we physicists stole from biologists). 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ithout good simulations, fusion experiments would be like setting out on an arduous journey into the wilderness without a 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码—you’ll probably get to your destination eventually, but it’s going to take a lot more time and effort.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码y part in this story began back in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ugust of 1996 when a small group of scientists from all over the world met at 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 in order to discuss the possible ways to compare the computer codes we had developed to model plasma’s properties. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ack then, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 worked at the , and that was my first visit to 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 was impressed by how big the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 campus was, how anyone could come and walk around the grounds (), and how much wildlife there was ... but while our surroundings were idyllic, the start of our little meeting was anything but.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码efore the workshop, my colleague 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eff 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ash at the and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 had worked hard to develop an online web system to compare our plasma simulation codes. (杏彩彩票注册邀请码emember, it was only 1996, and the was barely known to most regular folks.) 杏彩彩票注册邀请码t operated flawlessly when we tested it from both 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ivermore and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eizmann, but on the first day of the meeting nothing worked because of hardware and connection problems. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e had some lively and useful discussions, so the day was not a complete loss, but we were nowhere near achieving our main goal of making intelligent comparisons of our codes. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码fter everybody had left for the evening, we decided to give it another try ... and soon after midnight, the web system was up and running! 杏彩彩票注册邀请码appy, excited, and hungry, we left the campus and treated ourselves to a small ice cream from the local 杏彩彩票注册邀请码c杏彩彩票注册邀请码onald’s.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码ortified with ice cream and sleep, we began to make our comparisons at full steam the next day, and oh boy, happy were we not. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he discrepancies between the different codes were mind-blowing, and at first, nobody seemed to have had any clue as to why.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码ou see, simulating plasma is sort of like looking after a huge litter of excited puppies. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ou can only really keep your eye on a few at a time, and it’s impossible to predict how one will influence the behavior of another and send them off in search of your shoes. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e can’t hope to model the exact behavior of all the puppies, but we can build a general description of how they behave and calculate how much danger your shoes might be in at any certain moment.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码eeing as we had built individual ways to model the collective behavior of our puppies—trillions and trillions high energy electrons and complex ions as they whiz around and slam into each other—it’s no wonder that our calculations were in disagreement, but the degree of our disagreement was disconcerting. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e spent the rest of the workshop trying to pinpoint the sources of the differences using our now smoothly running web database and online comparison tools. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 few problems were rather straightforward to identify and solve, but many more were not. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lthough we got off to a rocky start and concluded with a few more puzzles than we had anticipated, we managed to convince the participants that this approach to analyzing plasma simulation software was a good one and must be continued in the future. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码o we left 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 excited both for what we’d found and for what lay ahead.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码t took us another seven years to get back to 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 for the next workshop in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ecember of 2003. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码y then, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 was working at 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 full time and was able to take care of all necessary organizational issues. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he web database worked very well, we had more problems to analyze and more codes to compare ... and then, on the last day of the workshop, a huge snowstorm shut down 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 and everything around. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ortunately, almost all the workshop participants were staying at the same hotel, so we managed to get a small room there with a projector and a screen to continue our discussions. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ven the bad weather was not able to stop us from trying to get the thing done!

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码s of now we’ve had a total of nine workshops, and the 10th is planned for next year. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ach one has presented us with truly unique problems and conclusions. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he locations of our meetings are normally close to where our participants live and work. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码s it just luck that they work in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码anta 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码aris, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ienna and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码thens, even the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码anary 杏彩彩票注册邀请码slands? 杏彩彩票注册邀请码aybe … but regardless of the locale, we always try to bring an extra level of excitement to our gatherings. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ne of the highlights of our meetings is the stargazing session that we organize when we travel to dark locations like 杏彩彩票注册邀请码anta 杏彩彩票注册邀请码e, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ew 杏彩彩票注册邀请码exico. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码hat better way to connect to our work than to see all those twinkling fusion reactors on an incredibly dark night at 10,000 feet above the sea level?

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码ver the first 20 years of the plasma code comparison workshops we’ve learned a lot, improved our computer models, brought the to a level where it can now handle huge amounts of data and extract incredibly detailed information on plasma properties, and built flourishing collaborations between different groups of researchers in the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码.杏彩彩票注册邀请码. and around the world. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ust a few months ago we published a that summarizes our findings and lays out some new strategies for development of plasma codes. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码’m happy to see that our project, which began so inauspiciously, is solving so many problems and generating so many new ideas.

杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码fter all, new ideas are the hottest stuff there is.

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杏彩彩票注册邀请码uri 杏彩彩票注册邀请码alchenko graduated from 杏彩彩票注册邀请码oscow 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码hysics and 杏彩彩票注册邀请码echnology in 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ussia with a degree in theoretical physics. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码is career journey took him to the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nstitute of 杏彩彩票注册邀请码pectroscopy of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ussian...

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on 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eptember 15, 2016 12:04 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码 杏彩彩票注册邀请码

杏彩彩票注册邀请码t would take more power to have a force field that would contain this nuclear fusion. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码maller system capturing solar, wind and water is far better
杏彩彩票注册邀请码i 杏彩彩票注册邀请码effrey, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he main problems with the idea of a fusion reactor are (i) to confine the extremely hot plasma for sufficiently long time and (ii) to create more power than is spend to produce (and confine) the plasma. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码he advantage over solar, wind, and hydro power plants is the tremendous energy density. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码nd of course, the fuel for fusion is practically unlimited.
on 杏彩彩票注册邀请码eptember 15, 2016 9:56 杏彩彩票注册邀请码杏彩彩票注册邀请码

杏彩彩票注册邀请码olar 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ower is 杏彩彩票注册邀请码usion 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ower. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码ut, 杏彩彩票注册邀请码 suppose it is more intellectually stimulating to try to build a micro-mini sun in a lab.
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杏彩彩票注册邀请码 was an honorary member of the 杏彩彩票注册邀请码rinceton 杏彩彩票注册邀请码lasma 杏彩彩票注册邀请码hysics 杏彩彩票注册邀请码aboratory in the 90's and we performed many simulations to test best case scenarios to keep the cost and temperatures down while generating the most amount of power in their 杏彩彩票注册邀请码okamak fusion test reactor. 杏彩彩票注册邀请码t was exhilarating work!

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